Ever heard of Canine Influenza virus? Well, according to researchers, results from a 10-year study suggest two strains of influenza could mix to create a dangerous new influenza spread by dogs.
Dr Daesub Song, Associate Professor of Korea University, Republic of Korea, has called for closer monitoring of dogs and other companion animals as they could be a source of novel human influenza strains, and Canine Influenza virus may be one of them.
Taking a closer look at the Canine Influenza virus
Song explains: “Until now, dogs were considered neglected hosts in the field of flu research. However, after the first report of interspecies transmission, surveillance of flu viruses from companion animals should be further strengthened.”
In the 2000s, several cases of viruses crossing the host barrier were recorded. Most notably, H3N2 bird flu crossed over to dogs and developed into Canine Influenza virus (CIV).
Dr Song’s research has found that this H3N2 CIV could combine with H1N1/2009 and form a new influenza virus, called CIVmv.
The emergence of new species of influenza such as this is concerning.
Those infected will not have met a virus like this before, meaning they would not have immunity to the disease. If the virus could be carried and spread to humans from companion animals, it could have the potential to spread throughout the population extremely quickly.
A hybrid of influenzas
H1N1/2009 is known for causing the 2009-2010 global ‘swine flu’ pandemic. When this strain of influenza combines with CIV in dogs, some of the viruses recombine to form CIVmv. Although CIVmv is very similar to Canine Influenza virus, researchers have calculated there is a much higher risk of the disease spreading to humans due to its high infection rates in ferrets.
Viruses bind to host cells and cause infection via sialic acid (SA) receptors, which differ between species. Ferrets have very similar SA receptors to humans. Because of this, ferrets are considered the most reliable experimental model for predicting and evaluating the risk of novel human influenza viruses.
Details of the study
During their studies of the new CIVmv strain, Dr Song noted that infected dogs and ferrets displayed typical symptoms of respiratory disease, including congestion, breathing difficulties, coughing, runny eyes, sneezing, lethargy, and appetite loss.
As well as these symptoms, Dr Song reported the new strain spread between ferrets more quickly than other influenza viruses and replicated quickly.
Researchers are trying to develop a vaccine for the virus, which could possibly be a vaccine for animals. However, due to the high level of mutations, vaccines are very difficult to develop.
Not just dogs that can be infected
Despite being named Canine Influenza Virus, it is not just dogs that can be infected by CIV. During the ten-year study, researchers found that cats were also susceptible to the virus.
Dr Song investigated an outbreak of CIV in an animal shelter, during which 100% of the cats were infected and 40% died.
The development of susceptibility in cats is worrying as it shows that CIV can spread amongst different animal species.
Researchers have raised concerns as there is a potential for the virus to become endemic in companion animals. As both dogs and cats are in frequent contact with humans, much more frequently than pigs or chickens, the potential risk for a new strain to develop and infect humans is even higher.
A novel human influenza strain could emerge
Since being first identified in South Korea, Canine Influenza virus has spread to China, Thailand and USA. A case of CIVmv infection was identified in a dog in 2012 following an epidemic of H1N1.
Dr Song used this strain in ferrets to determine whether it had the potential to spread from canines to humans. From there, a novel human influenza strain could emerge.
Types of T Cells
T-cell receptors are the main surface protein complexes of T-lymphocytes responsible for the recognition of processed antigens associated with the molecules of the main histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells . The T cell receptor is linked to another polypeptide membrane complex, CD3. The functions of the CD3 complex include signaling into the cell, as well as stabilization of the T-cell receptor on the membrane surface. A T cell receptor can be associated with other surface proteins, its coreceptors. Depending on the coreceptor and the functions performed, two main types of T cells are distinguished.
Antigen-recognizing receptor complex of T-helpers
T-helpers (from the English. Helper – assistant) – T-lymphocytes, the main function of which is to strengthen the adaptive immune response. They activate T-killers, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, NK cells in direct contact, as well as humorally, releasing cytokines. The main sign of T-helpers is the presence of a CD4 coreceptor molecule on the cell surface. T-helpers recognize antigens when their T-cell receptor interacts with an antigen bound to the molecules of the main histocompatibility complex class II (Eng. Major Histocompatibility Complex II (MHC-II)).
Main article: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
T-killers, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, CTL (from the English killer “killer”) – T-lymphocytes, the main function of which is the destruction of damaged cells of their own body. T-killer targets are cells affected by intracellular parasites (which include viruses and some types of bacteria), tumor cells. T-killers are a major component of antiviral immunity. The main sign of T-killers is the presence of a CD8 coreceptor molecule on the cell surface. T-killers recognize antigens by the interaction of their T-cell receptor with an antigen associated with the molecules of the main histocompatibility complex class I (English Major Histocompatibility Complex I (MHC-I)).
T-helpers and T-killers form a group of effector T-lymphocytes directly responsible for the immune response. At the same time, there is another group of cells, regulatory T-lymphocytes, whose function is to regulate the activity of effector T-lymphocytes. By modulating the strength and duration of the immune response through the regulation of T-effector cell activity, regulatory T-cells maintain tolerance to the body’s own antigens and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. There are several suppression mechanisms: direct, with direct contact between cells, and distant, carried out at a distance – for example, through soluble cytokines.
T-killers, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, CTL (English killer “killer”) – a type of T-lymphocytes that performs the lysis of damaged cells of their own body. T-killer targets are cells affected by intracellular parasites (which include viruses and some types of bacteria), tumor cells. T-killers are a major component of antiviral immunity.
In the 2nd immunogram, the local immunologist wrote lymphocytosis as a result of t-cell activity. The result of the analysis made in the Almetyevsk AIDS center of lymphocytes is 55% with a norm of 11 to 37%. The result of the analysis of outpatient clinics of PJSC Tatneft 49%